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Mise à jour n° 6 du 23/01/2010

 

La jolie vie des camps avancés

Quitter la base et monter s’isoler à quelques-uns pour 3 à 4 jours sur Madre de Dios est une belle expérience.
Évidemment, l’affaire commence avec des sacs trop lourds, sur un itinéraire qu’il faut inventer au fur et à mesure de l’approche, en cherchant les faiblesses d’un terrain qui en comporte peu. Par ici, la progression en ligne droite est inconnue…


Lorsque enfin parvenu sur zone il faut commencer la recherche d’un lieu de camp, la concentration monte d’un cran. Car ces lieux sont rares, et la quête conduit parfois à un résultat mitigé.
Sur les calcaires ? Il ne faut pas y songer, sauf la bonne fortune d’un porche de grotte au sol plat, comme aux Lobos : autrement, ce ne sont que des bancs de roche nue, crevassée, inhospitalière.
Sur les grès ? Généralement, il s’agit de vallonnements humides, tourbières ou marécages, avec un sol de mousses épaisses de mauvaise tenue, gorgées d’eau.



Ces zones ne sont pas moins ventées, car s’il y pousse des arbres, ce sont des nains : il s’agit de l’espèce endémique Nothofagus antarctica, qui rampe au ras du sol pour résister au vent. Reste la zone de passage entre grès et calcaire. Très accidentée, piégée de chausse-trappes cachées sous l’accumulation des mousses, elle recèle aussi des dépressions propices où de grands arbres protecteurs ont pu s’établir. Les emplacements à peu près plats sont rares, car la plupart sont des points bas, certes attirants, mais qui collectent l’eau lorsqu’il pleut.
Lorsque le lieu « idéal » est trouvé, la tension baisse d’un cran, et quand enfin les tentes sont dressées et que les bâches de protection sont haubanées sur les arbres alentour, on commence à se sentir chez soi. Vient le calme du soir – quand la pluie ne crépite pas sur les bâches - , où l’on goûte l’isolement, le silence, et la majesté de la Nature.

Mercredi 20 janvier

La nuit passée aux Quinquas était certes moins romantique, Fabien le confirme ! L’avis de tempête étant maintenu pour la journée, la redescente est décidée. Les tentes sont lestées avec les sacs de matériel afin d’éviter tout envol. Il pleut toujours, mais, à l’arrivée sur le grand lapiaz tabulaire, une éclaircie survient. Comme elle semble durer, l’équipe en profite pour reprendre la prospection. Une cuvette à la jonction entre grès et calcaire semble prometteuse. De petits ruisseaux s’y perdent, mais au travers d’éboulis empêchant tout passage. Dominant ces pertes, un vaste replat calcaire est creusé d’un magnifique gouffre de cinquante mètres de diamètre, comme creusé à l’emporte-pièce. Une pente d’éboulis permet de descendre à - 25, mais là non plus on ne passe pas.
De gros blocs de grès, de dimensions métriques, ont été apportés autrefois par les glaciers et sont posés çà et là. Ils sont curieusement surélevés sur un piédestal de calcaire, car ils ont protégé leur embase de la dissolution qui a abaissé le niveau du terrain avoisinant. Maintenant, des coins de ciel bleu apparaissent : où est la tempête annoncée ? Imprévisible Patagonie ! Le lapiaz s’assèche progressivement et sa couleur, grise sous la pluie, se marbre de blanc aux arêtes et sur les versants, puis vire au blanc pur, éblouissant.


Transition magique, par laquelle le paysage tout entier se transforme à vue d’œil…
Au Lobos, on ne craint pas les assauts du vent et la prospection se poursuit : la redescente n’est que pour demain. La recherche est couronnée de succès : ils découvrent une belle perte à l’endroit idéal, au contact entre une bande de grès et le calcaire. Trois gros ruisseaux s’engouffrent par un puits de 20 mètres. Aujourd’hui ils n’ont pas fait suivre leur matériel, ce sera donc un objectif de choix pour l’équipe qui montera prendre la relève.

De la base sont aussi parties ce matin deux équipes, avec deux objectifs aquatiques. Serge et Stéphane relèvent à l’aide d’un sondeur embarqué sur un Zodiac la profondeur des senos, ces canaux qui séparent les îles. Quadrillant le terrain à petite allure, ils enregistrent ainsi le profil du plancher marin, ce qui permet de reconstituer l’allure du relief lors de la dernière glaciation, lorsque le niveau de la mer avait baissé de 120 mètres. Ils trouvent des zones plus profondes que cette valeur, ce qui prouve qu’il existait là des lacs d’eau douce, qui débordaient par des rivières encaissées cascadant vers la mer en contrebas. Bien qu’ils opèrent 10.000 ans plus tard, ils peuvent ainsi en dresser la topographie…
Florence et Laurent, nos plongeurs, prennent connaissance du milieu sous-marin. Il faut se protéger avec des combinaisons étanches car l’eau est à 10 °C.

Elle est claire, la visibilité atteint 15 mètres. Le milieu est riche en crustacés et coquillages, mais les poissons sont rares. Alentour, des laminaires déploient leurs bras et leurs larges feuilles. Les plongeurs aperçoivent soudain une araignée de mer, Centolla patagonica, la reine des crustacés, de 75 cm de diamètre, pattes comprises. Ce soir, l’animal prestement saisi sera le point d’orgue du repas, accompagné d’une mayonnaise et d’un blanc chilien…

Jeudi 21 janvier

Aujourd’hui nous subissons la pire tempête depuis notre arrivée, avec un vent littéralement déchaîné et des grains très violents. Les lointains ont disparu, le paysage n’est plus constitué que de formes imprécises, délavées, couvrant toute la palette des gris. Dans le ciel plombé courent des nuages échevelés, et, face à la base, la houle déferle avec violence sur la plage de graviers. Tout le monde reste à l’abri ; les travaux ne manquent pas : entretien, reports topographiques, réparations, mises au net, comptes-rendus, séchage des plantes, étude des échantillons… Chacun pense à ceux des Lobos, qui redescendent aujourd’hui. Ils ne doivent pas être à la fête… Ils arrivent enfin à 18 heures, après une traversée en Zodiac difficile, surtout dans les passages ouverts sur le nord et devant le port. Sur Madre de Dios, ils ont subi le gros mauvais temps, mais la tempête y était semble-t-il moins violente qu’à Guarello.

Vendredi 22 janvier

La tempête s’est apaisée : le temps reste maussade, mais nous profitons du premier jour complet sans pluie ! Trois équipes partent en camp. Didier, Isabelle, Jean-François et José montent aux Quinquas

Fabien, Florian, Jean-Philippe, Pierre, Serge et Thomas vont aux Lobos. Enfin, Arnauld, Bernard, Bruno, Cédric, Stéphane et Vanessa partent pour la Détente : c’est peut-être la bonne fenêtre météo pour continuer l’exploration du gouffre qui nous nargue depuis 2006… Florence et Laurent plongent au « champignon » de l’anse de la Baleine : à – 25, l’eau douce sort de fissures impénétrables. Antoine et Jo vont poursuivre l’inventaire botanique de l’île Bascunan, à 4 km de Guarello. Une tranche de Nothofagus betuloides est ramenée : l’âge de l‘arbre sera mesuré en comptant les cernes, après polissage de la coupe.

Samedi 23 janvier

À la Détente, deux équipes descendent aujourd’hui dans le gouffre : l’une équipe les puis, l’autre descendra plus tard pour filmer. Si tout va bien, ils toucheront le fond aujourd’hui, ou cette nuit, mais resteront hors de contact jusqu’à demain.
Aux deux autres camps, les reconnaissances et les explorations continuent.
À dix heures, la pluie arrive, d’abord sporadique, puis soutenue. À quinze heures, c’est de nouveau la tempête. Espérons qu’elle est moins forte en altitude, car dans le gouffre de la Détente, on suit un ruisseau depuis l’entrée.


Les équipements ont bien sûr été installés hors du passage des crues – quand c’est possible. Mais les embruns plus violents et les débits augmentés gênent évidemment l’avance des équipiers.
Le temps se dégrade avec la journée qui avance. Une sortie prévue pour l’après-midi échoue : le vent debout et la mer formée repoussent le Zodiac ! Par chance, la seconde équipe de la Détente voit la crue se déclencher avant son propre départ. Deux hommes descendent prévenir ; ils rencontrent la première équipe à la cote – 150. Tous remontent. C’est encore raté à la Détente !
Au soir, un avis de coup de vent parvient à la base : on attend 140 km/h dans la nuit avec des creux de 7 à 9 mètres sur le Pacifique. Dans les trois camps d’altitude, où 15 des nôtres sont engagés, on se prépare au pire, tout en se souhaitant mutuellement la bonne nuit…


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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 26

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 27

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 36

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 26

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 27

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 36

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 26

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 27

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 36

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 26

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 27

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 36
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