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Mise à jour n° 7 du 27 janvier 2010

Sous les glaciers de marbre

Ces derniers jours l’activité est restée centrée sur les camps d’altitude où prospection et exploration se poursuivent sans relâche.


Mini-bélier dans le secteur des Lobos.

Dimanche 24

Finalement, dans les camps avancés, la nuit n’a pas été aussi mauvaise qu’on le craignait. Les vents étaient moins forts qu’annoncé, et l’on a pu dormir. On avait bien sûr renforcé les haubanages des bâches, recreusé les rigoles autour des tentes, avec la satisfaction de voir au matin que tout avait résisté.

Et pour la première fois le temps s’est mis au « beau » pour toute la journée. Ce qui n’exclut pas quelques ondées et un vent toujours présent, Patagonie oblige.

Sur Madre de Dios, on en profite à plein, et la journée va être riche. À la Détente, les deux équipes redescendent dans le gouffre, une partant le matin, la seconde en début d’après-midi. À la base, on n’attend pas de nouveau contact de leur part avant demain.


Portage vers le gouffre de la Détente.

Aux Quinquas, José et Isabelle retournent poursuivre une perte commencée hier, mais une voûte mouillante les arrête. Dans une petite grotte, ils découvrent un squelette entier de coipo, Myocastor coypus. L’animal, qu’on nomme ragondin en Europe, peut atteindre 60 cm de long (un mètre avec la queue) ; il est bien reconnaissable à ses incisives orange. L’après-midi, José s’attaque à un très beau puits qu’il descend jusqu’à la cote –60 où il s’arrête en plein vide, en bout de corde. Le puits se poursuit encore sur 20 mètres, il faudra revenir.

De leur côté, Jean-François et Didier ont trouvé une perte bien placée, au contact grès calcaire, et toute proche du camp. Un puits de 20 m dépose Jean-François sur un éboulis suivi d’un second ressaut, dont le fond est obstrué par des blocs. En remontant, il aperçoit une lucarne dans le bas du premier puits. Il la franchit pour déboucher dans un puis parallèle. Une pente d’éboulis le conduit cette fois-ci sur du « gros » : un puits de 8 m de diamètre.

Après 20 m de descente à la corde, il atterrit sur un palier d’où démarre une galerie en méandre, haute et étroite, où s’enfile un bon courant d’air, ainsi qu’un ruisseau. Tous les indicateurs sont au vert ! Faute de matériel pour descendre le ressaut qui se présente à nouveau, il stoppe en haut du méandre, bras et jambes en opposition sur les parois. Sous lui, le méandre se poursuit horizontalement puis se fond dans l’obscurité…

Depuis Guarello, Olivier, Florence, Laurent et Laurent vont chercher un accès au sommet calcaire qui fait face au Mont Roberto, de l’autre côté du seno Eleuterio. Vérification faite, ce petit massif ne semble pas recéler de potentiel intéressant.


L'équipe des Lobos s'approche du Pacifique...

Les Lobos retournent vers le Pacifique dont ils se sont déjà approchés hier : ils reconnaissaient la zone, tout en cherchant le passage qu’ont pu utiliser les Kawésqar qui ont bâti le mur de la grotte baptisée « du Nomade ». En approchant du col dominant le Pacifique, surprise : ils progressent sur l’habituel terrain calcaire dénudé, mais les creux sont envahis par une végétation herbeuse établie… sur un sable grossier ! D’où vient-il ? lls vont l’apprendre en arrivant au col, battu par un vent très violent, et qui domine de 350 mètres la plage qu’ils aperçoivent tout en bas. Les eaux bleu-vert de l’océan rageur s’y jettent en grondant.

Au col, la même végétation, le même sable. Et l’on en aperçoit sur les versants alentours, jusque vers 450 m d’altitude. Dans la pente qu’ils dévalent maintenant vers la plage, c’est le même terrain. Une falaise de 100 m de haut stoppe leur descente, mais tout autour d’eux se voient ces plaquages de sable repris par la végétation et dont la pente est parfois extrêmement raide. Sur un versant, il y a même une sorte de large « névé » de sable nu, qui semble épais de plusieurs mètres. Selon Fabien, le géologue de l’équipe, du sable qui remonte ainsi, sous le seul effet du vent, jusqu’à une telle altitude est un phénomène exceptionnel, sinon unique. Au col, le sable ne vole pourtant pas. Ne se dépose-t-il que lors d’épisodes paroxysmiques ? Ou bien s’agit-il d’un héritage des temps anciens, où régnaient des conditions encore pires qu’aujourd’hui ?

Décidément Madre de Dios est l’île de toutes les questions, et de tous les superlatifs… Des échantillons sont prélevés pour analyse.

En rentrant au soir au camp de la grotte, diverses cavités sont pointées. Ils retrouvent Antoine et Denis, montés les relayer, et l’équipe qui revient de la perte des Lobos.

Lundi 25

Le mauvais temps se réinstalle pour tout le monde. Beaucoup de pluie et de vent fort, avec une visibilité que réduit le brouillard.


Dans le fond du gouffre de la Détente.

À 10 h 30 la Détente appelle : le gouffre est fini, c’est la fin d’une attente qui aura duré 4 ans, depuis sa découverte en 2006. Dans une ambiance très aquatique, ils ont descendu un ressaut de 5 m, franchi quelques cascades, puis la pente générale de la galerie décroît, des dépôts d’argile apparaissent. Mauvais, ça… Quelques mètres plus loin c’est le siphon, avec la mousse de la crue d’hier encore collée aux parois sur deux mètres de hauteur. Au total seulement 50 m de mieux en distance, pour une cote finale de – 323 m. Ils ont à peine entamé le stock de cordes, qu’il n’y a plus qu’à remonter sans s’en être servi, avec tout ce qu’il faut déséquiper ! Pendant la remontée, nouvelle crue arrivant par un affluent à la cote –300 ; heureusement la montée de l’eau est lente, signe d’une pluie modérée à l’extérieur. Sortie tard dans la nuit du 24 au 25.


Remontée du fond de la Détente.

Florian, Jean-Phi et Denis retournent à la perte des Lobos : après un vaste puits de 40 m où dévale un ruisseau, une succession de ressauts et de petits puits les conduit au seuil d’une nouvelle verticale estimée à 50 mètres. Arrêt par manque de matériel et de temps. En fin de journée, tout le monde rentre à Guarello, sauf Denis et Antoine.

Un peu plus au nord, les 4 Quinquas se préparent aussi à redescendre. Laurent et Olivier vont les chercher au rivage : nous n’avons pas assez de Zodiacs pour les laisser tous sur site pendant les camps de plusieurs jours.

Mardi 26

Départ de Florence, Laurent et Olivier pour les Quinquas. Un rayon de soleil les accompagne, qui ne durera pas, mais qui est toujours bon à prendre ! Ils vont continuer le gouffre du Flux, la perte située au nord du camp. Ils descendent le ressaut entrevu par Jean-François. Mais le méandre ne garde pas ses belles dimensions. Il faut progresser à plat ventre, dans la partie la plus « large », avec, en dessous de soi, un trait de scie où circule l’eau. Tandis que Laurent équipe difficilement, à bout de bras, le puits suivant, un grondement soudain se fait entendre : c’est la crue qui arrive ! En un éclair, ils jaugent la situation : ils n’ont pas le temps de bouger. Le petit méandre sous eux absorbera-t-il l’onde de crue, ou bien va-t-elle noyer leur boyau ? Sueur froide. Et l’eau passe… En fait le débit reste limité, mais l’acoustique particulière du lieu a amplifié le bruit annonciateur de son arrivée. Plus de peur que de mal ! Ils sont maintenant dans des passages au contact du calcaire et du grès, une roche moins résistante : des écailles se détachent de la paroi à leur avancée, et le, méandre est toujours aussi exigu. Poursuivre serait prendre des risques. Ils s’arrêtent à la cote –100. De fait, ils trouvent dehors en ressortant une couche de 2 cm de gros grêlons, qui n’a pas encore fondu…



Le contraste des deux domaines de Madre de Dios : le karst dénudé et la forêt magellanique.

Aux Lobos, Denis et Antoine vont herboriser vers le Pacifique afin d’inventorier un milieu différent. Tous redescendront demain.

Stéphane entraîne Jo pour la suite de la bathymétrie du seno Eleuterio, jusqu’à l’anse de la Baleine. Il y avait là autrefois un très grand lac, profond de 130 mètres, et dont le déversoir au sud était situé 40 mètres sous le niveau actuel de la mer. Il faudra des mesures complémentaires pour préciser vers où se dirigeait son émissaire : le sud du seno Eleuterio actuel, ou bien le seno Contreras, de l’autre côté de l’île de Guarello. Comme souvent, les conditions forcissent au cours de la journée. Après dîner, Laurent, Cédric et Arnauld, s’arc-boutant les uns les autres sous la pluie battante, descendent sur le port avec un anémomètre : l’appareil, prévu pour des vents inférieurs à 110 km/h monte jusqu’à 117 et se bloque !

 


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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 26

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 27

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 36

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 26

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 27

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 36

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 26

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 27

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 36

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 26

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 27

Warning: strftime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /var/www/html/ultima2010/journal.php on line 36
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